Saskatchewan River Delta Land

The Saskatchewan River Delta is rare and unique.[1] It is located 300 km northeast of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan (Canada).

Humans have occupied the Delta for over 7,000 years.[2]

The growing First Nations and Métis populations who live in this biophysical, historically significant and culturally rich area of Canada are deeply connected to people, identity, place and land. 

Living as part of the land is important to the residents of the Saskatchewan River Delta. People living in and around the Saskatchewan River Delta have been advocating for its health across many generations.[3]

To learn more about the cultural significance of the Saskatchewan River Delta, view this video and consider visiting the following website: Saskatchewan River Delta Conservation Initiative.

Did You Know?

The Saskatchewan River Delta - kisiskāciwani-sīpiy maskēko askīy

  • is the seventh largest inland delta in the world.
  • is the largest freshwater river inland delta in North America[4] at around 10,000 square kilometres.
  • is fed mainly by the Saskatchewan River, which gains its water from the North and South Saskatchewan Rivers—80-90% of the flow comes from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains.
  • is home to Cumberland Lake, the largest water body in the Saskatchewan River Delta.
  • is a crucial habitat for a diverse range of wildlife from muskrats, fish and birds to moose.
  • provides a critical habitat during breeding, recording high bird numbers for a relatively small area of land.
  • houses peatland, marshes, peat bogs, levees and sloughs.
  • is part of the Western boreal forest.
  • is home to Cree and Métis families from the Northern Village of Cumberland House and Cumberland House Cree Nation in Saskatchewan to Cedar Lake in Manitoba.
  • is where Cumberland House is located—the oldest European settlement in Western Canada founded by the Hudson Bay Company circa 1774 as a fur-trading post.
  • is important to local residents and is part of their everyday livelihood and cultural traditions. View the following video about Big Eddy Lodge (a hunting, fishing and ecotherapy lodge on the Saskatchewan River Delta).

Here is a map of the Saskatchewan River Delta.

Saskatchewan River Delta

For more information about the history of Cumberland House (Saskatchewan), particularly Métis history, visit the Cumberland House Museum.

Opportunities and Strengths in the Saskatchewan River Delta

The Saskatchewan River Delta, with its diversity of wetlands, streams, ecosystems, vegetation and wildlife, contains a wide range of Indigenous cultural keystone species.

Indigenous cultural keystone species are flora and fauna including muskrats, moose, ducks, birds, fish and a myriad of insects that benefit from the use of fire to support sustainable population growth.

Why Burn in the Saskatchewan River Delta?

The following are insights from Solomon Carrière (Muskrats to Moose Project Team Member) about the ecological reasons for burning in the Saskatchewan River Delta.

When you are burning, you are cleaning the land.

You are making good food for the animals that use that marsh.

If you do not burn, the plant debris builds up and then the animals move out.

Burning creates that new growth. It is better for the lakes, for the water, for the animals, and you were witness to that.

In the case of the muskrats, when they are building their houses, they are creating channels in the lakes by moving the plants around, they are uplifting the roots as they spread out those roots, then the ducks come in and eat those roots too. It is all healthy for the lakes, for the Delta.

Then the muskrats are also moving those aquatic weed beds around and then the moose come to eat the aquatic weed bed too.

It is like the muskrats are the gardeners of the Delta; they are constantly weeding the garden.

If you do not weed your garden, it will not produce, and the weeds take over.

The people that were trapping there were helping the muskrats garden.

Here is a list of mammals, fish, birds and waterfowl that call the Saskatchewan River Delta home:

  • Mammals, for example, muskrats and moose. Listen to Cree
Cultural keystone species (with Cree name – Swampy Cree dialect) Indicator significance
Muskrats (wacaskak) Uses of fire stimulate new root growth on the land as a food source in marshes and sloughs.
Moose (moswa) Uses of fire stimulate new shoot growth (for example, small willows) as a food source, create productive forage habitat and attract animals to hunting areas.

  • Fish, for example, goldeye, lake sturgeon, lake whitefish and walleye.[5] Listen to Cree
Cultural keystone species (with Cree name – Swampy Cree dialect) Indicator significance
Goldeye (wipicīsis) Uses of fire provide access to habitat which supports spawning and the fish lifecycle from egg to adult.
Lake Sturgeon (namēw) Uses of fire support the fish’s preference for access to shallow riffles for spawning; lake sturgeon in the Saskatchewan River Delta grow faster than other populations across Canada; harvested for subsistence and recreational fishing.
Lake Whitefish (atīkamēk) Uses of fire provide access to habitat which supports spawning and the fish lifecycle from egg to adult.
Walleye (okaw) Uses of fire provide access to habitat which supports spawning and the fish lifecycle from egg to adult.

  • Birds and waterfowl, for example American green-winged teal, Bluebill duck, Canada goose, canvasback duck, mallard and white fronted goose.[6] Listen to Cree
Cultural keystone species (with Cree name – Swampy Cree dialect) Indicator significance
American Green-Winged Teal (apītisip) Uses of fire support access to habitats for breeding, during the moulting season and as a migration staging area.
Bluebill Duck (maskēkosip) Uses of fire support access to habitats for breeding, during the moulting season and as a migration staging area.
Canada Goose (niska) Uses of fire support access to habitats for breeding, during the moulting season and as a migration staging area.
Canvasback Duck (misikwnowēwisip) Uses of fire support access to habitats for breeding, during the moulting season and as a migration staging area.
Mallard (ininsip) Uses of fire support access to habitats for breeding, during the moulting season and as a migration staging area.
White Fronted Goose (opapacāpāsiw) Uses of fire support access to habitats for breeding, during the moulting season and as a migration staging area.

Interesting Facts

The Saskatchewan River Delta provides a critical habitat during breeding, recording high bird numbers for a relatively small area of land.

Approximately 500,000 birds use the Saskatchewan River Delta to breed and raise their young, including ~29 breeding pairs per square mile (about 11 per square kilometre) and ~69 total ducks per square mile (about ~27 per square kilometre). When compared to the entire boreal plain and its ~2.8 million birds, the Saskatchewan River Delta claims only 3.5% of the land mass but 15% of the bird population.[7]

In 2008, the Saskatchewan River Delta was designated an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) by Birdlife International due to its regular flocks of at least 1% of the global population of several bird species, some from as far away as Mexico and the Caribbean, who access the region as a migration staging area.[8]

What are Indigenous Cultural Keystone Species?

Indigenous cultural keystone species are flora and fauna that benefit from the use of fire to support sustainable population growth.

They “shape in a major way the cultural identity of a people, as reflected in the fundamental roles these species have in diet, materials, medicine and/or spiritual practices.”[9]

Indigenous-led fire practices and settler and state-led fire management in the Saskatchewan River Delta bring many benefits to Indigenous cultural keystone species. They

  • promote flora and fauna diversity;
  • create opportunities for tree regeneration;
  • create productive year-round forage habitats;
  • establish habitat conditions for shade-intolerant plants; and
  • preserve Indigenous cultures in ceremony, diet, language, livelihood, medicine and cultural land-based activities such as fishing, gathering, hunting and trapping.

In addition to fire practices benefiting individual Indigenous cultural keystone species, Indigenous Peoples have used fire in and around the Saskatchewan River Delta to manage entire ecosystems, including peatland, marshes, peat bogs, levees, sloughs and boreal forests.

Burning in the Saskatchewan River Delta is a lifestyle not a specific one-time only fire event.

pasiskēwin ōta kisiskāciwani-sīpiy maskēko askiy ōma pimātisitotamowin nmac pēyakwāw poko kakē pasiskan.
Listen to Cree

The Saskatchewan River Delta has a deep earthy smell. When there are Indigenous-led uses of fire on the land in the Delta, the colours of the land are purple, a variety of greens and red, like a colourful salad plate of plants.

kisiskāciwani-sīpiy maskēko askiy mitonē atamīk askīy isimākwan. ispīk ininiwak ka nikanōtacik iskotēw ōta maskēko askiy, ōmisi itasināstē askīy oki mīko-sīpīkonākwan, nanatōk askītakwāw ēkwa mīkonākwan, tasōc nanatōk kistikāna ōnakanēk.
Listen to Cree

The areas we burned were soon greener, redder, with more moisture in the plants.

ita ka pasiskēwāk wīpac askītakwāw, mīkwāw, aniwāk nipīskāw askīy kistikāna.
Listen to Cree

When there is no burning, the land is unhealthy and it is brown in colour (for example, domination of phragmites). The non-burned areas were dry, crunchy plants that had no colours or smells.

ita n’mwac ka pasiskēyāk, askīy atī nipomakan ekwa osāwinakan (e.g. domination of phragmites). ēkā ka-pasikātēk askiy ē-pastēk, kāspi maskēko pakwa n’mawc mino-itasināstēwa ekwa n’mawc minākwana.
Listen to Cree

-Renée Carrière

(Muskrats to Moose Project Team Member)

During the 2021 Muskrats to Moose Project interview process, participants commented that from the 1940s to the 1980s, fire would go directly to new plant growth, and there were plenty of muskrats and moose. Then, from around 1986 to 1995, individuals, groups and communities who previously engaged in uses of fire on the Saskatchewan River Delta were told by field officers to stop burning.

We were told by field officers not to burn, that we needed a permit to burn. Why do we need a permit to burn when our family was always there practicing burning?

nikī wītamakōnanāk ōkanawēnīcikēwak ēka ka pasisikāyak, masinākan ka pakitinikāsowāk poko. tanēki anima ēka pakitinikatēk māna niwākōmakanāk kapē ēki pē pāsisikēcīk.
Listen to Cree

-Josie Carrière (age 98 in 2022) 


Game wardens did not come there but the word got out you couldn’t burn any more. Why did we even have to ask? We made the land healthy with fire. Fire meant new plants; that the muskrats ate, the mink ate and the moose ate. All the wildlife was healthy.

okanawēnīcikawāk nmwāc takosinak maka pikiskwēwin wētamāk nmwāc ka pasisikēyāk awasimē. tanēki anima kata ka kwecīkēmoyak? kikī mino pamitānow ōma askiy ka pasisamāk. iskotēw ōci ōski kistikānā nītawikīya; ēwakwāni wacask mīciso, sākwēsiw mīciso ēkwa moswa mīciso. kakinow pisisiwāk maskawātisiwāk.
Listen to Cree

-William Sewap (Cumberland House Cree Nation)

As a result of little to no burning on the land from 1996 to the present, plants choke out the current of water going through the marshes of the Saskatchewan River Delta. The creeks are overgrown and stop water flow. There are now hardly any moose and no muskrats.[10]

The muskrat was always the indicator of the health of the Delta.[11]

Here is an agency-recorded fire history map of the Saskatchewan River Delta (1950 – 2021)

agency-recorded fire history map of the Saskatchewan River Delta (1950 – 2021)

As a result of the diverse wildlife in the Saskatchewan River Delta, fishing, gathering, hunting and trapping has been carried out as a livelihood by Indigenous Peoples, families and communities over the generations, while hunting and sport fishing also provide economic benefits and revenue for local tourism.

During the 2021 Muskrats to Moose Project interview process, participants commented that from the 1940s to the 1980s,

everyone could make a living and we were all happy. Muskrats took care of us and we had food to eat for all of us and fur to sell. Fifty pound jackfish were caught on the lake, there were lots of fish in the lakes.[12]

Smoked muskrat is a delicacy. The land provided “wealth for people.”

1,000 to 2,000 muskrats were harvested per trapper family area between the time of the Hudson Bay account records began in 1774, to the mid-1980s.[13]

People were involved with the land, telling each other what they saw on the land. The water [from the Saskatchewan River Delta] used to clean the land too.[14]

As a result of little to no burning in and around the Saskatchewan River Delta from 1996 to the present, 

the water cannot get into the marshes as there is too much dead/blocked areas from the plants’ litter, resulting in no oxygen or sunlight. Zero to 70 muskrats were harvested per trapping area family and 5 to 6 pound jackfish were caught on the lake. Now, there is nothing, very few beavers and muskrats.[15]

Barriers and Challenges in the Saskatchewan River Delta

Since the 1960s, there have been significant changes to the Saskatchewan River Delta due to human factors and climate change—impacting the social, cultural and ecological significance of this delta.

Human factors are currently the dominant influence on the Saskatchewan River Delta, but climate change will become more influential as we progress through the century.

Human factors include change in the seasonality of flows, sediment starvation, water withdrawals, hydropeaking and agricultural expansion which have contributed to loss of culture, language and knowledge.[16]

The following figure shows the change in the seasonality of flows. As a result of water resource management (dam operations), there is more flow in the winter and less flow in the spring and summer.

Average flows over the past 100 years before and after the dam

Average flows over the past 100 years before and after the dam based on data from a Water Survey of Canada gauging station in the heart of the Delta at the Pas, Manitoba.

Source: Jardine, T., Reed, M., Strickert, G., Massie, M., McKay-Carriere, L., MacColl, I., Carrière, R., Carrière, S., Abu, R., & Steelman, T. (2023). Healthy delta, healthy people: The past, present and future of the Saskatchewan River Delta. In K.M Wantzen (Ed.), River cultures: Life as a dance to the rhythm of the water. Paris, UNESCO. pp. 397–421.

Under natural conditions, the Saskatchewan River Delta experiences two spring/summer flooding peaks: in May as snow and ice melt across the local watershed and again in July as snowmelt from the Rocky Mountains reaches the Delta. These biannual high-flow conditions create riffles, pools and an extensive network of backwaters for fish to spawn throughout the Saskatchewan River Delta.[17]

Sediment deposition has occurred in the reservoirs above the Delta including Lake Diefenbaker, Codette Reservoir and Tobin Lake.

As the rivers meet these reservoirs, the water slows down, causing it to drop its sediment in the reservoir. Most of the sediment is stored in Lake Diefenbaker, then Codette Reservoir, followed by Tobin Lake. The clear waters that leave Tobin Lake carrying no sediment are called “hungry waters.” They pick up sediment from the bottom of the river and the river banks, causing the river to get deeper and wider below the dam. Thus, when there are high waters, there is less likelihood of flooding over the river banks to restore the wetlands with water, oxygen and nutrients—the lack of periodic flooding to restore the wetlands is bad for life.

Water withdrawals, mostly for irrigation, have reduced the overall volume of water flowing through the Saskatchewan River Delta (see below figure).

overall volume of water flowing through the Saskatchewan River Delta

Hydropeaking and the associated high ramping rate (such as the rate at which flows change) cause daily problems for wildlife in the Saskatchewan River Delta.[18]

The erratic flows, particularly noticeable in the summer and fall, cause small fish to be stranded and to die on dry river banks. Erratic flows can also damage habitat for birds or mammals nesting in the riparian zone (for example, river banks and shore edges).

Some of the most devastating effects of hydropeaking occur in winter—as water levels rise rapidly, the bottom of the river is pressure washed underneath the ice which accelerates erosion. Water going over top of the ice can drown muskrats in their houses, trap fish between ice and river bottom, and lead to highly unstable ice conditions for human navigation.

Comparison of seasonal and dally fluctuations

Source: Andrews, E. J., Reed, M. G., Jardine, T. D., & Steelman, T. A. (2018). Damming knowledge flows: POWER as a constraint on knowledge pluralism in river flow decision-making in the Saskatchewan River Delta. Society & Natural Resources, 31(8). 892–907.

Agricultural expansion in the Prairie Ecozone has indirectly affected the Saskatchewan River Delta. Wetland drainage on the prairies reduces habitat for migratory birds and ducks. This reduction on the prairies combined with fewer and less-often replenished wetlands in the Saskatchewan River Delta translate to less breeding stock arriving at and staying in this delta.

For example, this graph[19] shows the decline of duck density in the Saskatchewan River Delta over a 50-year period. 

Duck Density

Source: Andrews, E. J., Reed, M. G., Jardine, T. D., & Steelman, T. A. (2018). Damming knowledge flows: POWER as a constraint on knowledge pluralism in river flow decision-making in the Saskatchewan River Delta. Society & Natural Resources, 31(8). 892–907.

In terms of human factors, there have been major Saskatchewan and Manitoba hydroelectric infrastructure developments since the 1960s, such as the E.B. Campbell, Francois-Finlay, Gardiner, Nipawin and Cedar Lake Grand Rapids dams.

Notably, the combined effect of upstream dams has changed the natural seasonal cycle of all events that lead to vegetation rejuvenation in the Saskatchewan River Delta. The change to the natural seasonal cycle combined with the domination of the invasive species such as phragmites (large perennial reed grasses that can reach 10 feet) has resulted in vegetation not being able to rejuvenate.

This change to natural seasonal cycles and scarcity of vegetation has had a disastrous effect on the numbers of muskrat and moose populations, food, livelihoods and industry for Indigenous trappers and other people whose economies are linked with the health and well-being of the land.[20]

Climate change is beginning to have an impact on the Saskatchewan River Delta, but the effects are nuanced and difficult to disentangle from human factors.

What is known is the temperatures in the Saskatchewan River Delta have risen by 3–4 degrees Celsius and up to 6 degrees Celsius in the winter. Further increases in temperature in the Saskatchewan River Basin will enhance irrigation demand upstream, reducing the overall volume of water flowing through the Delta.[21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28]

These human and climate factors coupled with no burning from 1986 to 1995 resulted in the Saskatchewan River Delta having

  • a significant decline in the muskrat, moose, lake sturgeon, lake whitefish and duck populations due to disruptions by decades of upstream damming and water withdrawals;[29]
  • an increase in human and predator access;
  • a reduction in seasonal water flow;
  • a change in water levels;
  • a lack of access to cultural food sources and medicine; and
  • an excessive growth and stagnation of vegetation.

Phragmites [large perennial reed grasses] are everywhere. But fire is a safe way to keep the phragmites under control. We need a healthy ecosystem to prevent disease in animals and birds.[30]

Loss of fire disturbance has led to overgrowth of invasive vegetation, compromising wildlife habitat in the Saskatchewan River Delta. Without fire, the phragmites choke out native vegetation and their leaf litter blocks water from flowing from the river into wetlands.

Moreover, when muskrats make their houses from the hollow stalks of phragmites, they freeze to death in their homes because these invasive plants do not have the insulating properties of the solid-core stalks of native plant species such as bulrushes, sedges or cattails.

The following graph[31] shows the decline in harvested muskrat pelts for the N-28 and N-90 Trappers over a 60-year period. 

Number of muskrat pelts

Carrière, S., Carrière, R. & Jardine, T. (n.d.). Muskrat mysteries: Revitalizing wetlands and wildlife with fire and floods through diverse instruments of science. [Unpublished presentation]. Saskatoon, SK. University of Saskatchewan School of Environment and Sustainability.

In his view of our responsibilities as stewards of the land, Environmental scientist Dr. Graham Strickert (Muskrats to Moose Project Advisor) echoes the late Professor Norm Smith (1941-2021) who worked in the Delta for decades: “if human factors and climate change continue to affect the Saskatchewan River Delta and we humans don’t intervene, the Delta will be transformed from a vast, rich, diverse and highly productive wetland into a single river channel that rarely floods and produces much less life.”

Over time, the biophysical decline of the Saskatchewan River Delta can negatively affect the health, well-being, cultures and languages of local First Nations and Métis Peoples, their families and communities.

Due to these human factors and climate change affecting the Saskatchewan River Delta, the Provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba designated wildlife management areas to support habitat restoration and address environmental impacts.

How do these opportunities and challenges impact burning in the Saskatchewan River Delta?

Indigenous-led fire practices and settler and state-led fire management are viewed as a way to support community protection, ecosystem stewardship, habitat restoration, climate change adaptation planning and regenerative land management on this prized land. These practices support the thriving of the Delta’s ecosystems and habitats.

The Elders would give us all heck for not treating the land well. For hundreds of years our ancestors used fire to clean the land. We need to continue fire to honour that practice of burning the land.

kētēyak kīkawitāmākonanāk ōsam mwāc kwaysk kipamītanow askīy. mitātātomitanawāw tātw-āskiy ki-tāniskowākōmākanāk ki apacītawāk iskotēw ē-pamītacik askīy. kinanaw ēkwa poko iskotēw ka apacītak mistī kitēnētamāk oma isīcikewin, ka-sasiskamāk macipakwa.
Listen to Cree

-Murdoch Carrière (Cree)

Get information on the Cumberland Delta Resource Management Fires Burn Plan and related resources by clicking on the Engaging in Indigenous-Led Fire Prescriptions tab and Resources tab.

[1]Besl, J., Anhorn, C., Jardine, T., & Strickert, G. (2021). Ramsar information sheet: Canada Upper Saskatchewan River Delta.

[2]Ibid.

[3]Ibid.

[4]Smith, N. D., Slingerland, R. L., Pérez-Arlucea, M., & Morozova, G. S. (1998). The 1870s avulsion of the Saskatchewan River. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 35(4). 453–466. https://doi.org/10.1139/e97-113

[5]Besl et al. (2021)

[6]Ibid.

[7]Ibid.

[8]Ibid.

[9]Garibaldi, A., & Turner, N. (2004). Cultural keystone species: Implications for ecological conservation and restoration. Ecology and Society, 9(3), 1. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss3/art1/

[10]Muskrats to Moose Project Team (2022). Muskrats to moose: Braiding cultural burning and Western fire management – interview – summary of findings. Turtle Island Consulting Services Inc., p. 9.

[11]Ibid.

[12]Muskrats to Moose Project Team (2022). Muskrats to moose: Braiding cultural burning and Western fire management – interview – summary of findings. Turtle Island Consulting Services Inc., p. 10.

[13]Ibid.

[14]Ibid.

[15]Ibid.

[16]Jardine, T., Reed, M., Strickert, G., Massie, M., McKay-Carriere, L., MacColl, I., Carrière, R., Carrière, S., Abu, R., & Steelman, T. (2023). Healthy delta, healthy people: The past, present and future of the Saskatchewan River Delta. In K.M Wantzen (Ed.), River cultures: Life as a dance to the rhythm of the water. Paris, UNESCO. pp. 397–421. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000382792

[17]Besl et al. (2021)

[18]Andrews, E. J., Reed, M. G., Jardine, T. D., & Steelman, T. A. (2018). Damming knowledge flows: POWER as a constraint on knowledge pluralism in river flow decision-making in the Saskatchewan River Delta. Society & Natural Resources, 31(8). 892–907.

[19]Ibid.

[20]Muskrats to Moose and Prince Albert Grand Council (2022). We Are Fire-Camp 1, Trip Report. Prince Albert Grand Council: Chief Joseph Custer Reserve, Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation.

[21]Anis, M. R., & Sauchyn, D. J. (2021). Ensemble projection of future climate and surface water supplies in the North Saskatchewan River basin above Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Water, 13(17). 2425.

[22]Dumanski, S., Pomeroy, J. W., & Westbrook, C. (2014, December). Impact of increasing rainfall and rain-on-snow on flood generation in a Canadian prairie catchment. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 2014, pp. C41D-02).

[23]Gober, P., & Wheater, H. S. (2014). Socio-hydrology and the science–policy interface: A case study of the Saskatchewan River basin. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 18(4). 1413–1422.

[24]Hurlbert, M., Fletcher, A., Sauchyn, D., & Diaz, H. (2020). Climate change, agriculture and communities in the South Saskatchewan River Basin. Vulnerability studies in the Americas: Extreme weather and climate change, 22.

[25]Massie, M., & Reed, M. G. (2013). Cumberland House in the Saskatchewan River Delta: Flood memory and the municipal response, 2005 and 2011. In Climate Change and Flood Risk Management. Edward Elgar.

[26]Pomeroy, J. W., Fang, X., & Williams, B. (2009). Impacts of climate change on Saskatchewan's water resources. https://research-groups.usask.ca/hydrology/documents/reports/chrpt06_impacts-climate-change-sask-water-resources_apr09.pdf

[27]Sagin, J., Sizo, A., Wheater, H., Jardine, T. D., & Lindenschmidt, K. E. (2015). A water coverage extraction approach to track inundation in the Saskatchewan River Delta, Canada. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 36(3). 764–781.

[28]Tanzeeba, S., & Gan, T. Y. (2012). Potential impact of climate change on the water availability of South Saskatchewan River Basin. Climatic change, 112(2), 355–386.

[29]Abu, R., Reed, M. G., & Jardine, T. D. (2020). Using two-eyed seeing to bridge Western science and Indigenous knowledge systems and understand long-term change in the Saskatchewan River Delta, Canada. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 36(5). 757–776. https://doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2018.1558050

[30]Muskrats to Moose Project Team (2022). Muskrats to Moose: Braiding Cultural Burning and Western Fire Management – Interview – Summary of Findings. Turtle Island Consulting Services Inc., p. 8.

[31]Carrière, S., Carrière, R. & Jardine, T. (n.d.). Muskrat mysteries: Revitalizing wetlands and wildlife with fire and floods through diverse instruments of science. [Unpublished presentation]. Saskatoon, SK. University of Saskatchewan School of Environment and Sustainability.